A. HISTORICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION

1. Education during the Ancient Period

Education Thought
Aim/s
Types
Contents
Agencies
Organization
Methods
a. Education for conformity
· To survive
· To conform to the tribe to which they belong.
· Practical
· Education (vocational/domestic training)
· TheoreticaI education (intellectual / religious training)
· Ritualis-tic and pre-scriptive
· Family (center for practical training)
· No grades, grading system, or levels of instruction
· Tell me and show me
· Trial and error
· Encultu-ration
· Indoctri-nation
· Organic education
b. Education for the Preserva-tion of Social Stability
· To impress traditional ideals and customs to the succeeding generation in order to maintain and perpetuate the long established social order
· Moral training / social training
· Theoretical / religious training
· Language, literature, religious beliefs
· Home
· Elemen-tary and secon-dary schools
· Elementary and higher levels
· Dictation
· Memoriza-tion
· Conscious imitation
· Harsh discipline
c. Education for the development of individuality
· To promote individual success and welfare through the harmonious develop-ment of the various avocets of human personality
· Military training
· Physical training
· Moral / civic
· Domestic
· Gymnastic / paramili-tary exercises
· 3R’s
· Liberal education
· State
· Barracks type institution
· Family
· Spartan: Birth-7: care of the mother 7-18: barracks 18-20: professional war training 20: oath of allegiance 30: required to marry, fullpleged citizen
· Athenian: Birth-7: care of the father 7-16: music & physical education 16-18: public gymnasium 18-20: military service 20: full citizenship
· Training
· Harsh discipline
· Imitation
· Memoriza-tion
· Principle of individual differences (Athenian)
d. Education for Unitaria-nism
· To educate the Roman youth for realizing national ideals (virbonus)
· Physical training
· Utilitarian
· Cultural
· Professio-nal
· Twelve Tables
· Family
· Military
· 7-10: elemen-tary (boys & girls)
· 10-16: seconda-ry (boys only)
· 16 onwards: higher (boys still
· Memoriza-tion and imitation
· Exercise in good literary
· Intensive drill on parts of speech / gramma-tical elements


SYNTHESIS:
1. Culture was passed on and preserved for generation.
2. Tribal people were able to adjust and adapt to political and social life.
3. Liberal education was integrated in the curriculum.
4. The complimentary development of the person became vital for his cultural development and for the social transformation of the state.
5. The concept of educational ladder was introduced.


2. Medieval Conception of Education

Education Thought
Aim/s
Types
Contents
Agencies
Organization
Methods
e. Education for humanitarianism
· To develop socially responsi-ble indivi-duals who posses all the virtues of brotherly love.
· Moral / social
· Religious
· Universal /democra-tic
· Human conduct
· Funda-mental
· Anywhere (as the need arises)
· Used no textbook
· Parable method
· Practical, familiar practices in social life and nature
· Language under-stood by all
· Uses allusions
f. Monasti-sicm
· To achieve spiritual perfection necessary fro eternal salvation
· Moral / religious
· 7 liberal arts (grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy & music)
· Cathedral schools
· Parish schools
· Monastic schools
· Externi-do not intend to become monks and nuns
· Interni- will enter the order & take vows
· Dictation
· Memori-zation
· Question and answer
· Reflection
g. Scholasti-cism
· To support the doctrines of the church by rational argument
· Religious
· Intellectual
· Theology
· Religious philosophy
· Cathedral schools
· Monastic schools
· Medieval university
· Universitas magistro-rumet Scholarium
· Studium Generale
· Lecture / reading
· Disputa-tion
· Logical analysis
h. Chivalric
· To teach the best ideals, socials and morals
· Social
· Military
· Religious
· More on activity
· 7 free arts
· Home-mother
· Castle- lords & ladies
· Birthe-7: home
· 1-14: squire (knight)
· 21- ready for knighthood
· Example and practice
· Imitation
· Discipline
i. Guild
· To provide education of a practical type
· Vocational
· Religious
· Intellectual
· 3R’s
· Chantry schools (by wealthy merchants/traders
· Burgher schools 9by lay teachers/ priest)
· Guild schools for the children of craftsmen
· Masters- own, buy and sell articles
· Apprentices- beginners
· Journeymen-more remunera-ive
· Example
· Imitation
· Practice
· Dictation
· Memori-zation
j. Muslims
· To search for knowledge and the application of scientific facts
· Vocational
· Intellectual
· Commer-cial
· A vocational
· 3R’s
· Sciences, history, literature, logic
· Arabic language
· Libraries
· Elementary
· Secondary
· Higher / universities
· Repetition & Drill
· Memoriza-tion & imitation
· Observa-tion & experimen-tation

SYNTHESIS:
1. Equality before God was expounded in education.
2. Society became revolutionarized through a system of morality with fuller recognition of the integrity of the human personality.
3. The individual formed bondage to authorities and conventions of the church.



3. The Modern Conceptions of Education


Educational Thought
Aim/s
Types
Contents
Agencies
Organiza-tion
Methods
k. Education for Rich, Full Life
· Italian: Development of a liberal man who would be able to appreciate the past as well as enjoy the present
· Northern: Rich and full life for the society as a whole
· Literary
· Esthetic
· Practical
· Social
· Moral
· Religious
· 3 things of the world (World of the past, Subjective world of emotion, world of grammar, rhetoric and mathematics
· Biblical literature
· Secondary schools
· Grammar schools
· University
· Boys attend school while girls study at home under tutors
· Text study to replace lecture
· Written themes replaced oral disposition
· Self-expression
· Double translation
n. Literary Realism
· To have a complete knowledge & understan-ding of the human society
· Literary
· Practical
· Liberal
· Encyclope-dic
· Family (Vives)
· Private teacher (Rabelais)
· Academy (Milton)
· Individual difference (Vives)
· Incidental study ways to be made pleasant & attractive (Rabelais)
· Reading for content (Milton)
o. Social Realism
· To prepare the aristocratic youth for the life of a gentlemen in the world of affairs
· Practical
· Social
· Physical
· Moral
· Intellectual
· History
· Philosophy
· Language
· Academy
· Private tutorial system
· Direct social contacts
· Emphasized understanding & judgment
p. Sense Realism

· To prepare the young for the concrete duties of actual and practical living in the material universe
· Practical
· Scientific
· Liberal
· Democratic
· Comprehen-sive Curriculum
· Comenius’ School
· School of the Mother’s knees (infancy)
· Vernacular School (sensory training) 7-12 yrs
· Latin School (for understanding and organization of information) 13-18 yrs
· University for tertiary education 19-24 yrs
· Inductive method
· Things thought-words
· Nature method
q. Education as Formal discipline
· To train the mind through rigorous exercises in order to develop intellectual capacities and to form specific habits
· Physical vigor of the body
· Intellectual- mental power
· Moral good and wise conduct
· Drill subjects: spelling, arithmetic, and grammar
· Elementary
· Secondary
· Tutorial system
· Law of habbit formation
· 3 distinct steps: sensation, memory, reasoning
· Drill
· Praise & censure
r. Rationalism
· To free the individual intellect from all repression
· Intellectual
· Social
· Philosophy, science, art, social refinement

· Ethics morality
· Self-education
· Sensation- alism & disciplinism
· Critical analysis
s. Education in Harmony with Nature
· To develop the individual in accordance with the laws of nature/ human development
· Holistic education
· Nature phenomena consisted of the budding activities & interests of the pupil’s own nature
· Family
· Tutors
· Infancy or savage stage-birth to 5 yrs
· Childhood or stage of savory-5 to 12 yrs
· Boyhood or stage of solitude-12 to 15 yrs
· Adolescence or stage of social being -15 to 20 yrs
· Modern principles of teaching: growth activity and individuality
· Order of nature: need, activity experience, knowledge
t. Education for Patriotic Citizenship
· To develop military prepared-ness and aggressive-ness for the preservation and glorification of the State
· Secular
· Civic
· Physical and health training
· Vocational
· Universal
· Compulsory
· Free common
· Social studies
· Public school
· 3 level system
· Centralized
· Comprehen-sive

· Adopted all methods tested and proven safe, practical and efficient
u. Education as Psycholo-gical Develop-ment
· To direct and control growth and development through appropriate educational procedures
· Intellectual
· Moral
· Industrial
· Creative
· Dynamic
· 3R’s science, play, drawing, etc.
· All existing institutions
· Kindergarten
· Primary
· High school
· College
· Principles of: pupil activity, interest, appercep-tion, concentra-tion, correlation, self-activity, socialization, recapitula-tion, readiness, exercise & effect
v. Education as a Scientifi-cally Deter-mined Process
· To determine the effects of the educational process in the improve-ment of map
· Utilitarian
· Liberal /cultural
· Universal / democratic
· Science (core subject)
· Elementary
· Secondary
· Technical
· Provisions for individual differences
· Experimen-tal problem solving
· Scientific method
· Research
w. social Traditio-nalism
· To give insights into one’s social inheritance, into the ideals, institutions, conditions, & customs of society
· Social
· Vocational
· Recreational
· Sex education/ parental education
· Universal
· Compulsory
· Social Studies
· Co-curricular activities
· Schools
· Public lectures, motion pictures & programs
· PTA
· NGOS
· Centralized, supported and supervised by the government
· Social communi-cation, cooperation & service
· Social groupings
· Socialized school manage-ment

x. Social Experimentalism
· To prepare for a progressive rebuilding of the social order
· Intellectual
· Civic
· Vocational
· Social Studies
· Free public school system
· Democratic school organization
· Faculty and student councils
· Social guidance
· Recognition of rights of others
· Social motive

SYNTHESIS:

1. Education became person-oriented in approach.
2. The development of the mind, body and moral was enhanced.
3. The principal of freedom of thought and creativity became the basis of education.
4. Learning starts from concrete to abstract.
5. The natural interests and the characteristics of the learners were considered.
6. Education emphasized the process of learning and not on the things learned.
7. The principles of human growth and development were considered for teaching and learning effects.
8. Education became an agency for citizenship involvement for national development and progress.
9. More sciences were included in the curriculum.
10. To determine the suitability and effectiveness of the curriculum materials, systematic, and objective analysis was done.
11. Learning objectives and subject matter were scientifically determined.
12. Learners were trained to make intelligent choices by finding all available facts and the reasoning power to solve life problems.
13. Citizens were provided education for personal adjustment and social reconstruction.


4. The Philippine Education

PERIOD
FEATURES
A. Pre-Spanish
· Existences of schooling like reading and writing related to the study of Koran particularly in Maguindanao.
· Filipinos had an elaborate civilization prior to Western contact. The indices are effective technology, predictive sciences, art and religion, system of writing, etc.
B. Spanish
· The education of the Filipino was focused mainly on the learning of the Christian doctrine.
· Introduced the parochial school concept practiced in Europe during the Dark Ages
· Subjects, other than the Doctrina, were arithmetic, music, and various arts and trades. The vernacular was the primary medium of instruction.
· Academic institutions higher than the parochial schools were established. These were the colegios for the boys and the beaterios for the girls. These were equivalent to present day high schools.
· Produced the first grammars and dictionaries that led to the development of Filipino languages.
· Provisions for the training of teachers through a normal school.
C. American
· The Educational Act of 1901, also known as act. No. 74 of the Philippine Commission was promulgated.
· Set up a three-level school system. The first level consisted of a four year primary and a three year intermediate or seven-year elementary school. The second level was a four-year program.
· In 1910 the Office of the Superintendent of Private Schools was created. This later became the Bureau of Private Schools.
· Reading, writing, arithmetic, good manners and right conduct (GMRC), civics, hygiene and sanitation, gardening, domestic science, American history, and Philippine history were the subjects for study.
· In 1925, the Monroe Survey commission, headed by Paul Monroe, was created to evaluate the entire school system the Americans set up.
· Educational aims: 1) training for self government and 2) provision of English as a common language.
D. Commonwealth
· The fundamental aims of education as set forth in the 1935 Constitution are: to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience, and vocational efficiency and to teach the duties of the citizenship.
· Promulgate the so-called “Quezon Code of Ethics” which laid the foundation of the emerging philosophy of Philippine education.
· Tagalog became the basis of the national language.
· Required the teaching of the Filipino national language in the senior year of all high schools and in all years in the normal schools.
· The Education Act of 1940 (C.A. 586) provided for the following:
a.Reduction of the 7-year elementary course to 6 years.
b.Fixing the school entrance age at 7 years.
c.National support for elementary education.
d.Compulsory attendance of primary children enrolled in grade 1
e.Introduction of double-single session.
E. Japanese
· Gives importance to the diffusion of elementary education and promotion of vocational education.
F. Third Republic
· The board of Textbooks was created.
· Return to the practice of only one class under one teacher in the primary and three teachers to two classes of five teachers to three classes in the intermediate.
· Compulsory completion of the elementary grades.
· Compulsory enrollment of children in the public schools upon reaching seven years of age.
· Service eligibility of teachers was made permanent.
· The Board of National Education (BNE) was created.
· A daily flag ceremony was made compulsory in all schools including the singing of the National Anthem.
· The life, works and writings of Jose Rizal especially the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo was included in all levels.
· Elementary education was nationalized and abolished matriculation fees.
· The Magna Carta for Publlic School Teachers (R.A. 4670) was enacted.
· Special Education Fund and local school boards were created.
· Rise of Barrio High Schools.
· Created the Presidential Commission to Study Philippine Education (PCSPE)
G. New Society
· Issuance of P.D. 6-A (Educational Decree of 1972)
· The fundamental aims of education in the 1973 Constitution are: to foster love of country, teach the duties of citizenship, develop moral character, self-discipline, and scientific, technological, and vocational efficiency.
· Bilingual Education Program mandates the use of English and Filipino separately as media of instruction in school.
· The National College Entrance Examination (NCEE) was created.
· Tertiary honor students (summa cum laude, magna cum laude, cum laude) are granted civil service eligibility.
· Professional Board Examination for Teachers (PBET)
· Education Act of 1982 was formulated.
H. Edsa Republic
· Fundamental aims of education: shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of the national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency.
· Free public secondary school.
· Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in Private Education.
· Teaching of values in the New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC)
· Student employment Law
· Creation of CHED
· Professionalization of teachers


A. Educational Contributions in the Different Periods

EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHERS
EDUCATIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS
1. Francis Bacon
(1561- 1626)

· Introduced the inductive method of teaching (Novum Organum)
2. Wolfgang Ratke
(1571-1635)

· Initiated teaching in accordance with child’s nature
· Principle of repetition to ensure mastery
3. John Amos Comenius
(1592-1670)

· Father of Modern education
· Wrote the 1st picture book, “Orbis Pictus Sensualium” or the World of Sensible Things Pitured
4. John Locke
(1632-1704)

· Father of English Empiricism
· Authored the “Tabula Rasa” theory of education
5. Richard Mulcaster
(1531-1611)

· Developed teacher-training colleges
6. Francois Fenelon
(1651-1715)

· Pioneered the education of women
7. St. John Baptiste de la Salle (1651-1719)
· Patron saint of teachers
· Founded La Salle schools
8. Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
· Wrote “Emile” and “Social Contract”
· Father of Modern Democracy
9. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827)
· Wrote “How Gertrude Teachers Her Children”
· Advocator of: object study with language, education for social regeneration, learning through observation & experiences, discipline based on love, etc.
10. Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841)
· Authored the Herbartian method (inductive method of teaching)
· Principal advocate of interest and apperception in learning
11. Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel (1782-1852)
· Father of Kindergarten
· Introduced the role of play inn the school program
12. John Henry Newman
(1801-1890)

· Authored the Idea of University” (must offer universal knowledge)
13. Herbert Spencer
(1820-1903)

· Defined education as complete living
14. Pedro Poveda
(1874-1936)

· Introduced Christian Humanism (committed to the upliftment of the poor and the marginalized people
· Founded the Teresian Association in 1911 (committed to the transformation of the world through the gospel)
15. Maria Montessori
(1869-1952)

· Advocated the education of the handicapped and underprivileged youth
· Introduced a new pedagogy for teaching young children (characterized by freedom, prepared environment, and specific goals of developing the child)
16. Paolo Freire
(1921)

· Criticized contemporary education as the education of the oppressed
· Wrote the “Pedagogy of the Oppressed” in 1968 (described traditional education as the banking concept of education responsible for the “culture of silence” among the oppressed
17. John Dewey
· Most popular educator of the 20th century
· Established the “Laboratory School”
· Wrote “Democracy and Education”
18. Horace Mann
· Pioneer of the “Common School” forerunner of the public School system)
19. Edward Lee Thorndike
· Authored the laws of learning
· Father of the statistical movement in education
20. Camilo Osias
· School has an important role in the development of dynamic nationalism and internationalism in relation to democracy in the education of the youth
21. Dean Francisco Benitez
· The function of our school is neither to fit the individual for the past which is dead and gone, nor to prepare him for a remote future which is problematical, rather it is to train the individual so that he will be a member of the world as it is.
22. Dr. Pedro T. Orata
· All Filipinos particularly the out of school youth adults have the right to education particularly those living in the far flung areas of the country where school resources maybe scarce, inadequate, limited or inappropriate.
23. Salvador Araneta
· Education must fight intellectual indolence among students, eradicate moral turpitude, subject them to the educational crucible of discipline, disciplining their muscles, their hearts, heir minds, and their character, and crowning their education with the education with the fire of love for God and nation
24. Rafael Palma
· “…the diploma is by no means conclusive evidence of one’s ability until he has demonstrated by actual performance that he has fully done the tasks expected of him for the good of the country…”
25. Dr. Lourdes Quisumbing
· Believes that education must strengthen the dignity of the learner as a human person. As such, the various dimensions of man’s personhood have to be fully developed by the school system through an effective and systematized values education.
26. Plato
· The teacher must emphasize the priority of ideas over matter, developing human virtues.
27. Aristotle
· The truly educated person is guiding his or her ethical conduct and political behavior.
28. Harris Broudy
· Focused on the value of education to “live the good life”
29. William C. Bagley
· Urged school system to return to the essentials of the basic skills of reading, writing, arithmetic, history and English
30. George Counts
· Education ought to prepare people to resolve social crisis by reconstructing ideas, beliefs and values in the light of changing condition.